The heart of a Compact fluorescent lamp is the electronic ballast which is made of thermistors, MOSFET, capacitors, inductor, transformer etc.
AC voltage is converted to pulsating DC voltage using bridge rectifier. Smooth DC voltage is supplied to IGBTs where oscillation is typically 20kHz – 40kHz. The square waves are fed to phosphor coated glass tube where the phosphorescent coating converts the UV light to visible light.
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I have modified images from Wikimedia Commons under Public domain:
Diode Bridge: derivative work: Rico402 (talk) Diode_bridge_alt_1.svg
Bridge rectifier: By ZabMilenko –
Diode: Stefan Riepl (Quark48). Quark48 at de.wikipedia
By me – Photograph, CC BY-SA 3.0,